Water disinfection with UV rays.

Ultraviolet radiation (UV) is electromagnetic rays rich in energy, it occurs in normal spectrum of solar energy. For water disinfection with ultraviolet rays, their bactericidal range (200-280 nm) is used, and within the range especially the radiation with wave length 253,7 nm. The radiation with exactly this wave length is used in the lamps (Philips 8 W) that can be found in our equipment RS1. They provide maximal absorption of microorganisms, from which the bactericidal effect results.

Water disinfection with UV rays is purely physical process and is held with continuous method (flow-through) in the radiant chamber. Microorganisms irradiated with UVC rays, such as bacteria, viruses, yeast etc. undergo deactivation in a few seconds. In their cells (DNA, RNA) there are activated the photochemical reactions inhibiting the vital processes and hence rendering the microorganisms harmless.
Advantages resulting from using the equipment in P.O.U. filtration system:
Water with no chemical and mechanical contaminations, with excellent crystallisation.
Removal from water, among the others, of: cysts, benzene, toxaphene, pesticide chlorides, heavy metals, manganese, nitrates and nitrites – hazardous to human health and life
Removal of chlorine odour and taste
No water contact with hard plastic BPA (bisphenol-A) -toxic substance
Water is stored with no access to light and air, which prevents
blooming process and bacteria growth.

P.O.U filtration system * in our dispensers:

Prefilter or set of prefilters in 10 inch tubes installed beyond the equipment in order to do the initial filtration before water runs into the dispenser, we use:

Sediment cartridges (mechanical ones) are designed for removing the undissolved contaminations from water. They proved to be excellent while removing sand, sludge, mud etc. from water. Filter with sediment cartridge is as a rule the first step at water treatment.

Sediment cartridges are produced in different technologies and depending on the version they are used for removing various types of mechanical contaminations.

Cartridges out of polypropylene foam (in other words: polypropylene fabric)
The special structure of the cartridge causes that the water running through it is forced through thick filtering layer. Therefore, the contamination molecules contained in water are inhibited inside the cartridge. The contaminations inhibited inside the cartridge remain there and do not go outside.

Carbon cartridges
Carbon cartridges are designed for removing organic contaminations, chemical compounds, for improving the water clarity - its taste, smell and colour. The activated carbon placed in the cartridge may be produced out of bituminous carbon, anthracite carbon or from coconut shells. The active carbon makes ADSORPTION – it consists in bonding the contamination molecules on the external surface of the adsorber (activated carbon in this case). The active carbon is an ideal adsorbent – because of its very large relation of the active carbon surface to its weight (500-2500 m2 / gram). The activated carbon is non-toxic and hence it is commonly used for water treatment.

Carbon cartridges may be divided into two groups:
Shaped in the form of compact mass (carbon block- so-called sintered (Prefilter) This type of cartridges is most often made out of bituminous carbon pressed into compact mass, so-called carbon block. The carbon cartridges in this form is mainly used for water treatment in the installations where the major criterion is to minimise the risk of getting out the carbon molecules into the water supply system (main water connections on a building, pre-filtration in RO systems etc.)

With granular carbon, poured into the enclosure made out of plastics – so-called linear cartridge. Cartridges with granular carbon provide more accurate chemical filtration - water has longer contact time with the treating deposit placed inside the cartridge.

Cartridges with granular carbon, because of the type of applied carbon deposit, may be divided into several grades:

1. Cartridges with bituminous carbon – are the basic type of activated carbon, designed for removing chlorine, organic contaminations and for improving water clarity.

2. Cartridges with anthracite carbon – are indirect type of active carbon as far as the filtration ability is concerned. There are also cartridges with mixture of anthracite carbon and carbon from coconut shells which are very good filtrating material in treatment of water for food purposes.

3. Cartridges with carbon from coconut shells – the characteristic feature of this type of cartridges is high adsorption ability. They are especially recommended for treating water with very large organic contamination, oxygen consumption, chlorine level etc.

* P.O.U ( POINT OF USE ) water treatment methods in order to improve its quality depending on the aim and purpose

Deironing cartridges
They are special cartridges reducing the iron concentration in water. They are filled up with the composition of deposits regulating water reaction and reducing iron amount. Water deironing process is troublesome and in special cases it requires some consultation before choosing the proper equipment. In the situation where the iron amount in water exceeds the norm by many times, you can use water deironing cartridges, the effectiveness of iron removing process depends, however, on additional water parameters than the iron content itself.

From the water deironing point of view there are significant among the others: water reaction, oxygen consumption and iron amount of course. The important chemical parameters of water are also manganese level and water hardness. In case when the permissible iron level in water is exceeded (normal level up to 0,2 mg), the manganese content is often exceeded as well (normal level up to 0,05 mg), at the same time the standard for water cloudiness, colour and odour is usually elevated or exceeded. Removal of over-normative iron usually improves the remaining above-mentioned parameters as well. Water deironing cartridges decrease the number of hydrogen sulphide which manifests itself with characteristic unpleasant odour.

Antibacterial cartridges
It is a group of filtering cartridges that are able to eliminate bacteria, viruses, cysts and pathogens from water. The effectiveness of antibacterial cartridges is limited and they should be used for treating water of small and first of all defined level of microbiological contaminations. They are useful in after-treatment of food water and for protecting the other type of filter inserts against multiplication of microorganisms on the filtering deposits.

As far as the mode of action is concerned, the antibacterial cartridges may be divided into following types:
Made out of ceramic clay (natural aluminosilicate). They filtrate water mechanically, and are impermeable to contaminations bigger than 0,3 micron. The very high sediment filtration causes that portions of viruses, bacteria and cysts are not able to go through the clay layer and they are stopped on the cartridge. Filled up with bacteriostatic preparation KDF. KDF factor causes the removal or reduction of microorganisms number in water. KDF is used as supplementary preparation in the filter cartridges. The classic example are cartridges with activated carbon in which bactericidal factor KDF secures the carbon deposit against multiplication of microorganisms.

 

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